Muslims across the world observe Muharram as the first month of the Islamic calendar, marking it as the New Year. Muharram is also commemorated to remember the brutal assassination of Hazrat Imam Husain Ali, the grandson of Prophet Muhammad, and his supporters at the battle of Karbala. The month of Muharram is observed as a period of mourning by all the Muslims, especially those belonging to the Shia community. Husain was given the title of Imam which means spiritual leader of Islam. When Husain refused to swear allegiance to Yazid, the second Umayyad Caliph, he and his army were brutally massacred while traveling from Medina to Kufa. Read on further to know all about the history and background of Muharram.
An era of warring tribes prevailed in the pre-Islamic period in the Arabian Peninsula. Since there was no single major leadership, conflicts and battles occurred on small issues. However, fighting was strictly prohibited in four of the twelve months of the Islamic calendar. These months were Dhul-Qa’adah, Dhul-Hijjah, Muharram and Rajab. The word Muharram was derived from the word ‘haram’, which meant ‘forbidden’. This tradition was maintained from the time of advent of Islam and was religiously followed thereafter. Nonetheless, provisions were made to accept war in special situations, such as a threat to sovereignty of an empire. The battle of Karbala was fought against this law and tradition of Islam.
Traditional rivalry existed between the inhabitants residing on the banks of River Euphrates and Tigris. However, their animosity was to some extent reduced by Prophet Muhammad. When His son-in-law, Hazrat Ali became the Caliph, the enmity re-surfaced all over again. Hazrat Ali had two sons, Hazrat Imam Husain and Hazrat Imam Hassan. While Imam Husain ruled a part of the empire, known as Iran today, the other part was ruled by the Umayyads, the present Iraq. Hence, Imam Husain was called upon by the Shias of Kufa, a small town in the kingdom of Umayyad. He was called to accept their allegiance and hand over his place to Yazid, the ruler of Kufa.
Yazid then instructed his governor, Ibn-e-Ziad to take action against him. The message for the same was passed on by the Shias to Imam Husain, who along with his family and supporters started heading towards Kufa. However, on their way in Karbala, they were surrounded by the army of Yazid. They were maliciously tortured and killed. Husain’s head was severed and presented to Yazid. They did not receive any help from the Shias of Kufa who promised to do so while sending the message to Imam Husain. The battle took place on the 10th day of Muharram. The Shias consider this day as a sorrowful and grieving occasion. For them, the martyrdom of Imam Husain is a religious occasion.
Al-Hussein ibn Ali ibn Abi Talib (also spelled Hussayn) (Arabic: الحُسين بن علي بن أبي طالب) (8 January 626 CE – 10 October 680 CE) (3rd Sha’aban 4 AH – 10th Muharram 61 AH) was the son of Ali ibn Abi Ṭalib (final Rashidun Caliph and first Shia Imam) and Fatimah Zahra (daughter of the Islamic prophet Muhammad) and the younger brother of Hasan ibn Ali. Hussein is an important figure in Islam as he is a member of the Ahl al-Bayt (the household of Muhammad) and Ahl al-Kisa, as well as being an Imam.
Imamah (Arabic: إمامة) is the Shia doctrine of religious, spiritual and political leadership of the Ummah. The Shīa believe that the A’immah (“Imams”) are the true Caliphs or rightful successors of Muḥammad, and further that Imams are possessed of divine knowledge and authority (‘Iṣmah) as well as being part of the Ahl al-Bayt, the family of Muhammad.This imamas have the role of providing commentary and interpretation of the Quran.
Context in consultation with Syed I.A. Rizvi